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Coherence and de-coherence are the most fundamental steps that follow the initial photo-excitation occurring in typical pump-and-probe experiments. Indeed, the initial external laser pulse transfers coherence to the system in terms of creation of multiple electron–hole pairs excitation. The excitation concurs both to the creation of a finite carriers density and to the appearance of induced electromagnetic fields. The two effects, to a very first approximation, can be connected to the simple concepts of populations and oscillations. The dynamics of the system following the initial photo-excitation is, thus, entirely dictated by the interplay between coherence and de-coherence. This interplay and the de-coherence process itself, is due to the correlation effects stimulated by the photo-excitation. Single-particle, like the electron–phonon, and two-particles, like the electron–electron, scattering processes induce a complex dynamics of the electrons that, in turn, makes the description of the correlated and photo-excited system in terms of pure excitonic and/or carriers populations challenging.
Andrea Marini, Enrico Perfetto, Gianluca Stefanucci
© 2022, The Author(s)